Tag: Health Communication

Research Spotlight: Dr. Noel Brewer

Last week, Upstream Writers were joined by Noel Brewer, PhD, professor of Health Behavior in the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health and affiliated scholar with UNC’s Interdisciplinary Health Communication program. Dr. Brewer gave an interesting and informative talk about his recent tobacco research involving the effect of cigarette pack messages. His findings showed that pictorial cigarette pack warnings increased smoking quit attempts and 7-day quitting. Additionally, the pictorial warnings were found to work better than text warnings, as they led to more attention, negative affect, social interactions and thinking about the warnings. Finally, because the study’s findings did not fit existing models of health behavior, Dr. Brewer developed the new Tobacco Warnings Model.

Dr. Brewer received his PhD in psychology from Rutgers University and joined the faculty in the Department of Health Behavior at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2004. He studies how people make risky health decisions, and he currently directs the UNC Health Cognition & Behavior Lab where he conducts his research. Furthermore, in addition to Dr. Brewer’s tobacco research involving smoking risk communication, his work also focuses on HPV vaccine communication and increasing HPV vaccine uptake, and he currently serves as Chair of the National HPV Vaccination Roundtable. More information about his research can be found here.

In the spirit of Public Health Thank You Day, thank you, Dr. Brewer, for the work that you do to promote and protect public health! 

Emerging Emojis–the fight for a seat at the table

Do you sometimes feel like an emoji is the only way to perfectly embody the message, or the face, you are trying to convey?

It’s no secret that emojis are changing the way we communicate. They don’t just appear on our phones, either. Popularized emojis are iconic, appearing on clothing, in advertisements, and other outlets. They allow for a creation of meaning and personalization, as a readily accessible tool with which to join a dialogue.

Marla Shaivitz, a communication specialist at Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Jeff Chertack, a malaria expert with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, are appealing to the Unicode Consortium–an organizing body that approves characters an emojis for standardized usage–to consider adding a female mosquito to the list of emojis that will be added to smartphones next year. Apparently, the mosquito is among a list of 67 finalists that will be further considered.

Anticipated uses of the emoji include pairing the image with other symbols–a rain cloud, for instance, to encourage people to stay dry indoors and to encourage insecticide application–or to indicate that eradication efforts are under progress. As mosquitoes are key in infectious disease transmission (for viruses including dengue, Zika, malaria, and yellow fever), a recognizable symbol might encourage more dialogue about preventative behaviors or information-seeking behaviors.

Shaivitz and Chertack make their case by estimating seven times more usage of the mosquito emoji than of the beetle emoji on Twitter. In fact, they claim there is a pretty high demand for it.

When you think about the truly random emojis that do exist, it would seem far-fetched not to include one that has the potential to actually make a  positive change. Time will tell if Unicode bites.

Sources:

http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-moquito-emoji-health-20170922-story.html

hhtps://ccp.jhu.edu/2017/09/18/creating-buzz-proposing-mosquito-emoji-public-health/

 

The Voice of Public Health

People get in to public health because they want to help others. They want to share their wealth of knowledge in a way that makes a difference.

So then why don’t people hear public health messages?

Jim Garrow offers a fun, yet thoughtful read about why public health is boring.

One reason, messages go unnoticed is that public health has relied heavily on data and presenting rational arguments in an effort to persuade people to change behavior. Facts are important, I’m not denying that. But what really speaks to people?

Matthews and colleagues offer up the notion of speaking to deeper, moral values that connect us. Some practical, if not obvious, suggestions include:

  • Avoiding that intrinsic tendency of self-righteousness
  • Find common ground or at least empathy
  • Foster personal relationships, particularly with those who have different values than you
  • Tell stories that incorporate 6 moral foundational values (Care, Liberty, Fairness, Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity)
  • Understand your target community

People are more than numbers, and life is constantly going on around them. A wise teacher once told me we need to see people, know people, and care about people. We need to communicate, and then try again in different ways, over and over.

Dr. Anoop Kumar has a provocative post claiming “…this historic time is when your (public health) voice is most needed…You are being called to a higher purpose – to say what you know, to speak up for the good of our communities and our country…”

How will your voice be heard?

 

Sources:             

Garrow, Jim. Public Health is Boring. May 13, 2015. https://medium.com/rebel-public-health/public-health-is-boring-d7c9b9792787

Kumar, Anoop. A Clarion Call to Publich Health Mavens. May 19, 2014. https://medium.com/healthcare-and-public-health/a-clarion-call-to-public-health-mavens-c9775456ea7

Matthews G, Burris S, Ledford SL, Baker E. Advocacy for leaders: crafting richer stories for public health. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2016;22(3):311-315.

 

Fake Health News

Fake news has been dominating headlines over the past year. Although much of the publicity has been related to politics, fake news about health may be more widespread and difficult to identify.

But what exactly is fake news?

By definition, fake news is the deliberate spread of misinformation with the intention of making political or financial gain. Ultimately it may cause individuals to make health decisions that lead to harm or suffering.

How do you identify fake news?

HealthNewsReview.org is a health news watchdog at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health that offers 10 benchmarks to evaluate the truthfulness of health care reporting.

Before taking any article at face value, ask yourself the following questions. Answering no indicates a red flag for truthfulness or accuracy.

Does the story…

  1. sufficiently discuss the costs of the health intervention?
  2. adequately quantify the benefits of the intervention?
  3. avoid exaggerating potential benefits or ignoring potential harms?
  4. acknowledge the quality of evidence?
  5. avoid over-selling or exaggerating the findings?
  6. include comment from independent sources and identify potential conflicts of interest?
  7. compare the new intervention with those already available?
  8. clearly state how available the intervention is for consumers?
  9. show what is truly new or different about the intervention?
  10. mostly repeat a news release?

Kelly McBride, vice president of the Poynter Institute, acknowledged in an article in the Atlantic – “In science, good information is really boring. Science doesn’t leap ahead the way journalists like to cover it.”

Bottom Line: If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.

 

Next Level Data Presentation

By Arshya Gurbani

It’s probably safe to guess that lot of people studying Health Communication feel strongly about data, how it’s presented, and the “story” it has to tell. I thought it was about time to re-watch this, one of my favorite TED talks, about using statistics effectively. Hans Rosling presents data on child mortality, but in doing so he layers it with context and bias and paints a picture that is remarkably clear and moving.  It’s good stuff–seriously, get some popcorn and a handkerchief before you watch/re-watch it!

What’s culture got to do with it?

By: Courtney Luecking MPH, MS, RD Doctoral candidate: Nutrition

What happens when a cultural and political sociologist teams up with health researchers? Answer: some really fascinating work and advancement of how we think about the influence of culture on health.

Meet Andrew Perrin, Ph.D. He is a professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.

perrin

While his work focuses mostly on “what people need to know, be and do to make democracy work”, his family has opened up the opportunity to share his expertise with the public health arena. Does culture influence health? If so, how, and to what extent?

Dr. Perrin suggests that although the public health and health communication world may be able to measure certain aspects of culture well, there is a lack of breadth and depth of conceptualizing culture. This could mean we, public health and communication groups, are missing or misinterpreting a big piece of the health puzzle. He offered context of the contemporary synthesis of culture as presented by Johnson-Hanks and colleagues. A cyclical interaction between culture in the world and culture in our mind influences our individual and collective decisions and actions, but how can we robustly measure this?

culture

Fortunately, Dr. Perrin and an interdisciplinary crew are working to develop tools to measure culture in the world and culture in the mind within the context of obesity. Once measured, they will work to interpret the effects of culture on health. One project looks to explain variations and health outcomes in a county in North Carolina using a combination of geocoded photographs (culture in the world) and focus groups (culture in the mind). Results for this are forthcoming. Another project looked at obesogenic behaviors and stigma in children’s movies. You may or may not be surprised to learn that unhealthy behaviors are represented more than healthy behaviors, and movies contain messages that encourage weight-related teasing or bullying. For more information and results about this, review the paper on Pass the Popcorn.

Thanks to Dr. Perrin for sharing his time and expertise with our class! He highlighted the value interdisciplinary teams bring to thinking about problems in a more holistic manner that could ultimately benefit the public’s health.

 You can learn more about Dr. Perrin’s work at his website.

It’s Not Me, It’s You: Signs that its time to Break Up With Your Doctor

By: Aria Gray MPH: Maternal and Child Health candidate 2017

I recently broke up with one of my doctors, and while it was a difficult decision, I felt much better once I decided not to see that provider anymore. The doctor was recommended to me as a great expert in the field, but I never felt that they were truly listening to me, which is why I ultimately left.

However, finding a new doctor can be difficult. Learn more below to see if it is time to make a change in your health care.

Poor Communication: It is important to understand your condition and diagnosis as well as the recommended course of treatment. Make sure to ask follow-up questions and to communicate to your doctor that you do not understand. However, if communication issues are still not resolved, it may be time to make a change.

Poor Listening Skills: Patient care should be adjusted based on the needs and experiences of each individual patient. If there is a medication or treatment plan you have tried without success or are not willing to pursue, your doctor should listen to your thoughts and feelings and make a treatment plan accordingly. If you feel your doctor isn’t listening to you, find one that will.

Long Wait Times & Limited Access to Care: If it commonly takes you weeks or months to get an appointment with your doctor or if you consistently face long wait times in the office, it may be time to find a new doctor. It is important to receive prompt treatment and also to have your valuable time respected.

As I mentioned, making the decision to change doctors is not easy, and the process of finding a new doctor is often not easy (not to mention all of the paperwork!). Follow these tips for an easy transition to a new provider.

Fearful of Food?

By: Courtney Luecking MPH, MS, RD Doctoral candidate: Nutrition

I started following the Conscienhealth blog years ago. The organization aims to “advance sound approaches to health and obesity…(and) advocate evidence-based prevention and treatment”. Part of their approach is to provide a daily reflection about how a hot topic might influence our view of obesity or health policy.

A recent post got me thinking about whether fear-based messages are an effective or appropriate way to speak to consumers about food and nutrition. A meta-analysis published last year pooled 127 articles to look at the effect of fear appeals on attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. [Notes: Meta-analysis is a technique that aims to provide a conclusion based on statistical evidence about a large number of studies. Fear appeals are messages designed to persuade people to take action by sparking fear.]

Interestingly enough, fear appeals were found to have generally positive effects but less so for repeated behaviors. We eat multiple times each day, definitely a repetitive behavior, so perhaps fear-based messages are not the best way to communicate food-related lifestyle messages.

conversation-545621_1280

So how should talk about food? Headlines often pose negative or sensational statements to entice us to read. An example of this: Why Sitting is Killing You. But evidence suggests it might be more useful to share gain-framed messages. That is, focus on action people can take and what the positive outcome would be.An example of this: Review suggests eating oats can lower cholesterol as measured by a variety of markers.

Two decades ago, a study reported that Americans perceived food to be mostly associated with health and least associated with ple
asure. Americans reported more action to change diet to support health, yet they were also less likely to consider themselves healthy eaters. What would it look like if we talked in a more positive, less fearful or restrictive manner about food?

 

Resources:

Rozin P, Fischler C, Imada S, Sarubin A, Wrzesniewski A. Attitudes to food and the role of food in life in the U.S.A., Japan, Flemish Belgium and France: possible implications for the diet-health debate. Appetite, 1999 Oct; 33(2): 163-180.

Tannenbaum MB, Hepler J, Zimmerman RS, Saul L, Jacobs S, Wilson K, Albarracin D. Appealing to fear: a meta-analysis of fear appeal effectiveness and theories. Psychol Bull, 2015 Nov; 141(6): 1178-204.

Wansink B, Pope L. When do gain-framed health messages work better than fear appeals? Nutr Rev, 2015 Jan; 73(1): 4-11.

October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month

By: Aria Gray MPH: Maternal and Child Health candidate 2017

What is Domestic Violence? Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It can include physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and emotional abuse. Domestic violence affects individuals in every community regardless of age, economic status, sexual orientation, gender, or other demographic factors. However, domestic violence is most commonly experienced by  women between the ages of 18-24.

Domestic violence is preventable. Part of domestic violence prevention includes talking about this issue and reducing the stigma associated with it as a community. While all of October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month, the National Network to End Domestic Violence is hosting a week of action from October 16-October 22.

Here are some ways that you can get involved during the week of action and throughout all of October. You can also search for events that may be happening in your community with local organizations.

  • Wear purple for #PurpleThursday on Thursday October 20
  • Speak Out: Talk with a friend, family member, or colleague about domestic violence to help eliminate stigma and show survivors that they are supported.
  • Follow the National Network to End Domestic Violence on social media (Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram and change

For anonymous, confidential help available 24/7, call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-7233 (SAFE) or 1-800-787-3224 (TTY) now.

Putting the Pieces Together

By: Courtney Luecking MPH, MS, RD Doctoral candidate: Nutrition

Making decisions for our health can feel like putting together a 1,000-piece puzzle – time-consuming or perhaps frustrating – and that’s if you have all the pieces.

When it comes to health decisions, we first have to find trustworthy resources, then we need to be able to interpret and apply that information to make what is hopefully the best decision. This process is called Health Literacy, and it is of national concern. How big of a concern? 9 out of 10 people, to no fault of our own, do not have the skills needed to find or interpret health information.9-out-of-10-health-literacy

What is being done about this?

The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy recognizes it will take a mass effort of organizations, professionals, policymakers, communities, and individuals to change how our nation communicates health information. The plan highlights 7 goals and accompanying strategies.

Additionally, since 2010, federal law requires federal agencies to provide training for staff and use plain language when communicating with the public. Plain language means the audience is able to understand something the first time they read or hear it.

Click here for a before-and-after comparison. Which version do you think is easier to understand?

What can you do?

  • Find training in health literacy, plain language, and culture and communication
  • Work with people who specialize in communicating with plain language
  • Make use of existing tools to evaluate and/or plan materials

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers a Clear Communication Index that is a short, evidence-based form to use when developing or evaluating a communication product. I look forward to giving this a try

 

Let’s help our fellow citizens put all the pieces of their health puzzle together.

 

References and Resources:

Boston University. Health Literacy Tool Shed. http://healthliteracy.bu.edu/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC Clear Communication Index. http://www.cdc.gov/ccindex/index.html

Center for Plain Language. http://centerforplainlanguage.org/

National Network of Libraries of Medicine. Health Literacy. https://nnlm.gov/outreach/consumer/hlthlit.html

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy. https://health.gov/communication/initiatives/health-literacy-action-plan.asp