Category: Women’s Health

October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month

By: Aria Gray MPH: Maternal and Child Health candidate 2017

What is Domestic Violence? Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It can include physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and emotional abuse. Domestic violence affects individuals in every community regardless of age, economic status, sexual orientation, gender, or other demographic factors. However, domestic violence is most commonly experienced by  women between the ages of 18-24.

Domestic violence is preventable. Part of domestic violence prevention includes talking about this issue and reducing the stigma associated with it as a community. While all of October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month, the National Network to End Domestic Violence is hosting a week of action from October 16-October 22.

Here are some ways that you can get involved during the week of action and throughout all of October. You can also search for events that may be happening in your community with local organizations.

  • Wear purple for #PurpleThursday on Thursday October 20
  • Speak Out: Talk with a friend, family member, or colleague about domestic violence to help eliminate stigma and show survivors that they are supported.
  • Follow the National Network to End Domestic Violence on social media (Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram and change

For anonymous, confidential help available 24/7, call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-7233 (SAFE) or 1-800-787-3224 (TTY) now.

The Morning After Pill (and more): options for emergency contraception


Did the condom break? Did you forget to take your pill a few times this month and have unprotected sex? Were you somehow coerced into having unprotected sex? Did you know that you can stop a pregnancy before it starts using emergency contraception? Here’s a quick guide to the available methods listed in order of effectiveness.

Copper IUD (ParaGard IUD)

  • The most effective form of emergency contraception
  • Can be inserted within 5 days of unprotected sex
  • Will lower chance of pregnancy by 99.9%
  • You can keep using this to prevent pregnancy for up to 12 years after insertion


  • Newest form of emergency contraception in the United States
  • Blocks the hormones your body needs to conceive
  • Requires a prescription from a doctor or nurse
  • Works up to 5 days after unprotected sex and does not decrease in effectiveness over those 5 days
  • After using, use back-back up birth control (such as condoms) for 14 days
  • May not work as well if you need emergency contraception because you made a mistake with your birth control pills

Plan B or Next Choice

  • Available over the counter or online without a prescription
  • Works up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but effectiveness decreases each day
  • Do not use if you have already used ella since your last period

Remember that you cannot use two different kinds of emergency contraceptives at the same time and that you should not take more than one dose of emergency contraception. Also remember that this is emergency contraception, and these methods should not be used as your normal contraceptive method (unless of course you choose to leave the copper IUD in). Also, emergency contraception is intended to prevent a pregnancy before it starts and is not intended to terminate an already existing pregnancy.

Visit the Planned Parenthood website for more information.

Do I have a UTI? How do I get rid of it?

Week 11 Blog

The first time I ever heard of a urinary tract infection (UTI), it was my freshman year of college and my suite mate was doubled over in pain crying. The group girls from our hallway who assembled to help out in her time of need were convinced that we needed to call an ambulance. This was during the dark ages before smartphones and Wi-Fi in our dorm, so after tracking down the graduate student that lived in our hallway, she told us that it was probably a UTI and that our suite mate should go to the doctor or urgent care as soon as possible.

A few years later, when I was experiencing the same symptoms for the first time and was also doubled over in pain, it was only because of that experience that I had any idea of what was happening to me. I knew to get to a doctor immediately even though many of the websites I was frantically searching told me that my UTI could be cured by drinking lots of pure cranberry juice and resting.

My health classes in middle and high school didn’t talk about UTIs at all, and I have heard that same story from others as well. Here are some tips for detecting, treating, and preventing UTIs.

What are the symptoms of a UTI?

  • It burns when you pee
  • You feel like you need to urinate constantly, but when you go not much comes out
  • When you do pee it is cloudy, strangely colored, and/or smells bad
  • You feel sleepy and achy

How do I treat a UTI?

  • If you think you may have a UTI, make an appointment with a health care provider right away. They will have you pee in a cup and if you test positive for a UTI, you will soon be on your way home with antibiotics to rest and get better very quickly.
  • Your friend or the internet may tell you that you can cure a UTI at home, but most things like drinking cranberry juice or taking over the counter medicine are either preventative or meant to minimize your symptoms until you are able to see a healthcare provider.

How can I prevent getting a UTI?

  • Pee after sex!
  • Never hold it
  • Always wipe from back to front
  • Keep it clean down there with water in the shower or bath (no soap!)
  • Drink real cranberry juice (with no added sugar) to prevent future UTIs. There are also cranberry pills available at any pharmacy.
  • See a healthcare provider if you are getting frequent UTIs

How to sleep better on your period



Now that Spring Break is over and the end of the semester is approaching faster than any of us would like, I know that I need to get as much sleep as possible to keep my mind fresh and make it through each overscheduled day. I’ve noticed lately that the week before my period starts that I lie awake and review my growing to-do list over and over again and get a really restless night of sleep. Thirty percent of women reported that their sleep was disturbed during their period and 23% reported that their sleep was disturbed in the week before their period started.

Why do our periods give us insomnia when we would give anything to fall asleep quickly and get some good rest?

  • Your body temperature rises over the course of your menstrual cycle and can make it hard to sleep. An evening drop in temperature is what helps our bodies feel sleepy.
  • Mood swings can make you feel anxious or depressed.
  • Stomach issues, cramps, or headaches can make it hard to sleep.
  • Your cycle does cause insomnia. The drop in progesterone levels is likely a cause as progesterone has a mild sedative effect.

How to fix this

  • Make sure your bedroom is cooled to an optimal temperature.
  • Try deep breathing, meditation, or yoga to relax and de-stress before bedtime.
  • Eat a snack that is kind to your stomach before bed.
  • Take an ibuprofen or other pain reliever right before bed.
  • Avoid caffeine for several hours before bed.
  • Keep a period log that includes your sleep patterns in order to be prepared for your next cycle or to show your doctor at your next appointment.
  • Use a hormonal form of birth control to reduce the fluctuation in estrogen and progesterone. In addition to all of the other benefits of hormonal birth control, it can also help you sleep!

Breaking Rural Health Barriers

For those of us that are fortunate to live near hospitals and primary care clinics, that question of rural vs. urban care is unlikely to even cross our minds. But for those living in remote locations, lack of access is a common issue. Unfortunately, what many of us take for granted is another person’s struggle, especially if they are plagued with chronic conditions, such as asthma or diabetes. And in many cases, most folks in this situation often go without treatment.

The National Rural Health Association reports that while a quarter of the U.S. population lives in rural areas, only one-tenth of our nation’s physicians choose to practice in these areas. And while only a third of automobile crashes occur in rural locations, two-thirds of deaths attributed to those accidents occur on rural roads, indicating a shortage in acute trauma care.

These figures certainly give rise to the need for increased access to care within rural communities. Another factor that contributes to this issue is that Medicare reimburses rural hospitals at a lower rate than urban hospitals, resulting in fewer physicians choosing to practice in such locations. Over the last 25 years, nearly 500 hospitals have closed, many of which were located in rural communities.

Fortunately, this is the age of digital know-how. Technology is king, and health care is one of the leading industries taking advantage of such innovation and wisdom. General Electric (GE) is doing its part to improve women’s health in remote areas like Wyoming, where the average woman has to commute 70 miles just to receive a mammogram.

In 2014, the company started the GE healthymagination program, to expedite cancer innovation and improve cancer care to 10 million patients, over the next six years (until 2020). One of the program’s most influential aspects is the GE Mammovan, equipped with mammography technology to provide free mammograms to all women living in remote areas.

GE chose to pilot the program in Wyoming, which has the lowest number of citizens and lowest population density (after Alaska). Many of the women using the van cited it was their first time having ever received a mammogram, stating that travel time or insurance requirements had precluded them from being screened for breast cancer. GE’s website reports that because of Wyoming’s uneven population distribution, a third of women living in that state over age 40 never receive a mammogram.

Since nearly two years ago, the mobile unit has traveled throughout the state, setting up in locations where women can receive a mammogram within an hour, allowing them to avoid the hassles of taking off from work and/or driving long distances. In many ways, the van serves a dual purpose—by eliminating the barriers rural residents previously faced and improving access to preventative care. By detecting breast cancer as early as possible saves the health care industry billions and ultimately, saves lives.

While North Carolina isn’t as rural as Wyoming, you might be surprised to learn that 85 percent of our state’s counties are, in fact, considered to be rural. And with nearly 2 million people receiving Medicaid, access to care is certainly an issue of interest among health care workers and lawmakers. And while mobile units are pricey to create and maintain, the progress the GE Mammovan has made in Wyoming is a good example of how health information technology can work to address some of our most pressing issues that impede quality health for everyone.

To Celebrate Women’s History Month, Protect Reproductive Rights

Reproductive rights

March is Women’s History Month! This month, it is important to remember the past contributions of inspiring women, but it is also important to think about how events taking place right now be remembered during Women’s History Months in the future.

As you may know, on March 2, Whole Woman’s Health vs. Hellerstedt was argued in front of the Supreme Court. The case focuses on a Texas law that is designed to shut down more than 75% of women’s health clinics that provide abortion services in the state. This case will set the precedent on whether or not safe abortion care will be accessible to individuals throughout the United States. While Texas is at the center of the Supreme Court right now, 17 states in 2015 alone passed more than 50 abortion restrictions known as TRAP laws, and 11 states cut funding to Planned Parenthood. These TRAP laws have been enacted under the guise of “protecting women’s health,” but these laws have mostly placed an additional burden on already vulnerable women and also cut access to family planning clinics and services.

In February, Guttmacher released that the US abortion rate had declined to 16.9 abortions per 1,000 women from the 1981 peak of 29.3 per 1,000 women. An even more recent study from Guttmacher was just released that demonstrates that the unintended pregnancy rate was reduced by 18% between 2008 and 2011, which is the lowest it has been in 30 years. Additionally, 40% of unintended pregnancies in 2011 ended in aborted compared with 40% in 2008. While the abortion rates remained the same, the number of abortions has declined. These two recent studies demonstrate that the decrease in the abortion rate is attributable to the decrease in unintended pregnancies and not restrictions on abortion access.

If you’re interested learning more and haven’t already seen the video, check out John Oliver talking about this very issue. If you are passionate about this issue learn how to join the conversation on social media to support the Center for Reproductive Rights.

Is an IUD right for me?


I avoided getting an IUD for years because my provider had never told me it was an option for younger women and because of all the negative rumors I had heard about them. When I finally decided to get one after doing research, and talking to my provider, my friends and family had lots of questions for me, mostly because there are so many myths and misconceptions surrounding them.

Many of the negative facts about the IUD that you may hear are talking about the Dalkon Shield that was on the market in the 1970’s and not the Mirena and Paragard IUDs that are available today. Also, the people I talked to thought that I wasn’t eligible to get an IUD since I haven’t had children yet, but that is definitely not true! Many of the concerns about IUDs for young women are tied to the fact that IUDs don’t protect against STIs and that infection can occur if you have an activgetting e and untreated STI when the IUD is inserted. Your provider will give you an STI test before insertion to be sure that you don’t have an STI and will recommend using condoms to protect against future infection.

IUDs can last up to 6 years for the hormonal options and up to 12 years for the non-hormonal IUD, but there is no minimum requirement for how long that you need to keep using it. All you need to do when you don’t want your IUD anymore is call your doctor and make an appointment to have it removed. While using IUDs only 0.05-0.8% of women experience unintended pregnancies compared to 9% of women who use the pill and 18% of women who rely on condoms. The best part is that after IUD insertion, users don’t have to remember to do anything to prevent pregnancy. I know that I definitely don’t miss remembering to take my pill every day.

IUDs aren’t for everyone, but are an option that should be considered if you are looking to start using a contraceptive method or want to change methods. Check out this step-by-step guide from Bedsider for more information.

What Contraceptive Method is Right for You?


Have you been meaning to start using a contraceptive method, but can’t choose? Or is your current method not working for you? These days it seems like there are too many methods to choose from. Use the Bedsider Method Explorer to learn more about all of the options available to you. You can filter methods by categories to find out which contraceptive method is right for your lifestyle.

If you don’t know much about contraceptive methods, now is the time to learn! According to Guttmacher, knowledge about contraceptive methods is a strong predictor of use among young adults. A 2012 study among unmarried women aged 18–29 found that for each correct response on a contraceptive knowledge scale, women’s odds of currently using a hormonal or long-acting reversible method increased by 17%, and their odds of using no method decreased by 17%.

Remember that only you can decide the best option for you. If you have a partner, you can include them in the conversation, but ultimately this is your choice.

If you’ve chosen a method that requires a prescription or insertion, make an appointment with your doctor to talk about next steps! If you’re still confused, make an appointment with your doctor to ask lots of questions and get more information.

What’s the Deal with the Tampon Tax?


It’s taboo in our society to talk about our periods. On top of that, in 40 states tampons are taxed as luxury goods. In July 2015, Canada became the first country to eliminate the tampon tax, and now there is momentum in the United States to do the same.

So what’s happening exactly? Tampons and other feminine hygiene products are not considered necessity items by state governments and are subject to sales tax. Items considered necessity items and exempt from sales tax include groceries, medical purchases (like prescriptions), and food stamp purchases. Maryland, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Minnesota and New Jersey have actively chosen not to tax tampons, and the five other states that don’t tax tampon purchases don’t have sales tax.

A measure was recently proposed in California to make feminine hygiene products exempt from sales tax in the state and classify tampons and other products as medical necessities. California currently collects $20 million annually from sales tax on tampons and other products and estimates that women spend an average of $7 per month for 40 years on these products.

Getting your period is not a choice and is a necessary part of life. This tax is not insignificant to women, especially poor women. Tampons are not a luxury, and hopefully more states follow in California’s footsteps.

Maternal Death [Infographic]

maternal infographic

GUEST BLOGGER: Sophia Bernazzani

One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, established in 2000, calls for an improvement in maternal health, which is measured by the the number of maternal deaths. Maternal death is typically attributed to a lack of accessible and affordable prenatal care and unattended births in areas where medical birthing professionals are few and far between. However, improving the maternal death rate in countries with advanced health systems is still challenging, especially in the United States. For example, the United States spends more on hospitalization for pregnancy and childbirth than any other country, but the rate at which women are dying due to pregnancy or birth-related complications continues to rise. Nursing@Georgetown created an infographic to illustrate what causes maternal death and how it can be prevented, both in the United States and globally. Tragically, by the time you’ve finished reading it, another woman will have lost her life due to complications from pregnancy or childbirth.