Disease, Men's Health, Mental Health, Sexual Health, Social Determinants, Substance Dependence, Tobacco, Women's Health , , , , , ,

Discrimination and Health Part I: LGBTQ+ Americans

Past research has suggested that discrimination can impact health outcomes – perhaps through vehicles such as stress of daily interactions and negative experiences with the healthcare system. One group whose experiences with discrimination can be linked to negative health outcomes is LGBTQ+ Americans. A study found that over half of LGBTQ people have experience slurs and offensive comments, and over half have been sexually harassed or experienced violence, or had an LGBTQ friend or family member experience such trauma.

We can make the connection between discrimination and trauma through various factors. One is through microaggressions –  seemingly harmless daily interactions with others who express, in this case, homophobic or transphobic views. These have been found to negatively impact health. Another is through discrimination within the healthcare system that lead LGBTQ Americans to seek healthcare less frequently. 18% of this population has avoided necessary medical care. Various forms of discrimination they face at the hands of medical professionals, police, and community members are much worse for those of color and those who are transgender.

Unfortunately, we can already see the health outcomes of discrimination to this population – they have higher rates of psychiatric disorders, substance dependence (including higher tobacco use), and suicide; lesbian women are less likely to get preventative services for cancer, and gay men are at higher risk for certain STIs.

How can we work to eliminate these gaps, even when interpersonal discrimination may take longer to tackle as our culture continues to evolve? HealthyPeople2020 provides several recommendations. First, healthcare providers should discuss sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) respectfully with patients, and collect data on it. Medical students should be trained in LGBTQ culturally-responsive care. In addition, we must be spokespeople against legal discrimination of this population in social services such as employment, housing, and health insurance.

Sources:

https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-health

https://www.npr.org/documents/2017/nov/npr-discrimination-lgbtq-final.pdf

https://www.centerforhealthjournalism.org/2017/11/08/how-racism-and-microaggressions-lead-worse-health

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/microaggressions-in-everyday-life/201011/microaggressions-more-just-race

http://www.apa.org/topics/health-disparities/fact-sheet-stress.aspx

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2747726/pdf/nihms134591.pdf

  • Josh Boegner

    Great post looking at the different disparities face by LGBTQ+ individuals. I have also spent time researching and writing on the disparities these communities face, specifically when it comes to mental health outcomes and sexual health. It is important to note the impact that microaggressions and incidents of experience slurs can have on an individual level, and that these aren’t somewhere in rural america. While I do not claim to face oppression as a queer white male in the same way as others under the LGBTQ+ umbrella, these incidents happen all the time, I was just called a slur by a driver while biking in Chapel Hill yesterday. Thanks for highlighting the need for more of a focus on health outcomes!