I argued in a previous post that public health should look at factors impacting health using a multi-level approach. In this post, I attempt to outline the various multi-level barriers to medical care (specifically access to PrEP, HIV prevention, and AIDS care) for black queer men (or black men who have sex with men). This post focuses on the meso or mid-range level of analysis, and an analysis of the micro level is available from last week.
Black queer men especially lack trust in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in providers and the medical institution themselves (Philbin et al., 2016; Rucker et al., 2017; Thomann et al., 2017). This moves into a community level and interactional level issue where the community has many reasons not to trust providers or drug companies. We can think back to previous studies like the Tuskegee experiments, but we can also think about the lack of adequate care for black patients currently, including limited pain management and less patient-centeredness to name a few examples (Hoffman, Trawalter, Axt, & Oliver, 2016). This is a considerable barrier for providers to overcome in order to provide better treatment to black queer men. Similarly, queer men generally face implicit and explicit bias from providers and receive worse care, and this lack of care is exacerbated by other marginalized social positions (Phelan et al, 2014).
These could also be seen as macro level issues at the institutional level because the medical institution and pharmaceutical industry have constructed a practice that is ineffective for many marginalized individuals. Further, this stems from structural issues in our country such as racism, incarceration, and stigma that limit access to health care and impact our institutions.
Hoffman, K. M., Trawalter, S., Axt, J. R., & Oliver, M. N. (2016). Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 113(16), 4296-4301. doi:10.1073/pnas.1516047113
Philbin, M. M., Parker, C. M., Parker, R. G., Wilson, P. A., Garcia, J., & Hirsch, J. S. (2016). The Promise of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Ecological Approach to Attitudes, Beliefs, and Barriers. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 30(6), 282-290. doi:10.1089/apc.2016.0037
Rucker, A. J., Murray, A., Gaul, Z., Sutton, M. Y., & Wilson, P. A. (2017). The role of patient-provider sexual health communication in understanding the uptake of HIV prevention services among Black men who have sex with men. Cult Health Sex, 1-11. doi:10.1080/13691058.2017.1375156
Thomann, M., Grosso, A., Zapata, R., & Chiasson, M. A. (2017). ‘WTF is PrEP?’: attitudes towards pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City. Cult Health Sex, 1-15. doi:10.1080/13691058.2017.1380230